This illustration shows the principal anatomy of the swallowing apparatus plus the esophagus and stomach with peristaltic waves pushing a bolus towards the stomach in the esophageal phase. There are four phases involved in swallowing. The oral preparatory phase, the oral propulsive phase and the pharyngeal and esophageal phases. To the right are the steps in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing described in order from top to bottom.1. Principal anatomy involved in sagittal section2. Bolus moved to rear of oropharynx, and soft palate begins to elevate. The epiglottis moves to protect airway, while the vocal folds close at the midline. Hyoid bone elevates.3. Epiglottis has closed off larynx, and the soft palate has blocked food entry into the nasopharynx.
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