Margarita philosophica (1503), title page. This work, by the German author Georg Reisch (c.1467-1525), was an encyclopedic compilation of knowledge that became one of the standard textbooks of the time. Its twelve books covered topics including grammar, dialectics, rhetoric, arithmetic, music, geometry, astronomy, physics, natural history, physiology, psychology, and ethics. This title page represents Philosophy as a winged female figure surrounded by the seven liberal arts (logic, rhetoric, grammar, arithmetic, music, geometry, astronomy). Each liberal art is depicted as a female figure holding her traditional attribute.
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