Homo neanderthalensis craniums. These craniums are from fossils known as Neanderthal 1 (left) and Swanscombe 1 (right). Neanderthal 1 was the first specimen of H. neanderthalensis found, in Neanderthal, Germany, in 1856. Swanscombe 1 was discovered at the Barnfield Gravel Pit, Swanscombe, Kent, UK, between 1935 and 1955. Neanderthals were relatives of humans that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia between about 300,000 and 24,000 years ago.
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