Helwan Observatory. This observatory was built in Helwan, a suburb of Cairo, Egypt, from 1903. This 30-inch reflector telescope was provided in 1905 by British astronomer John Henry Reynolds (1874-1949). The first large telescope erected in Africa and the Middle East, it was among the first to observe the southern skies. It began operations in January 1909, observing Halley's Comet that year and in 1911. It was mainly used to observe galaxies, providing data for the development of modern galaxy classification. It was also used to observe comets, Jupiter's eighth satellite, Pluto, and solar eclipses.
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