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Credit: Phil Degginger/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY


Caption: Antifreeze proteins are found in certain fish inhabiting polar sea water. These proteins depress the freezing points of blood and body fluids below that of the surrounding sea water by binding to and inhibiting the growth of seed ice crystals. The proteins are believed to bind irreversibly to growing ice crystals in such a way as to change the curvature of the ice-water interface, leading to freezing point depression, but the mechanism of high-affinity ice binding is not yet fully understood. RESULTS: The solution structure of the type III antifreeze protein was determined by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. Twenty-two structures converged and display a root mean square difference from the mean of 0.26 A for backbone atoms and 0.62 A for all.

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Keywords: antifreeze, chemistry, crystal, crystals, diagram, freeze, freezes, freezing, growth, ice, illustration, inhibiting, model, molecular, molecular model, molecular structure, molecule, molecules, north-atlantic, ocean, pout, protein, proteins, science, seed, type iii antifreeze

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