Holmium, atomic structure

Holmium, atomic structure

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This image is part of the sequence science and technology: atomic structure and data for the elements

Credit: CARLOS CLARIVAN/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Caption: Holmium (Ho). Diagram of the nuclear composition, electron configuration, chemical data, and valence orbitals of an atom of holmium-165 (atomic number: 67), the most common isotope of this element. The nucleus consists of 67 protons (red) and 98 neutrons (orange). 67 electrons (white) successively occupy available electron shells (rings). Holmium is a lanthanide in period 6, and the f-block of the periodic table. It melts at 1461 degrees Celsius. The trend across the lanthanide series arises from the failure of electrons filling an inner f-subshell (here, within the 4th ring) to shield outer (valence) electrons from increasing nuclear charge.

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