Extraction of fossil DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Technicians extracting material from the fossilised bone of a cave bear (Ursus deningeri) found at the Sima de los Huesos site, Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. The mitochondrial DNA was extracted and sequenced. The fossil is over 400,000 years old, making it the oldest DNA sequence published to date (December 2013). The work was carried out in a collaboration between Centro Mixto de Evolucion y Comportamiento Humanos, Madrid, Spain, directed by Prof. Juan Luis Arsuaga and Svante Paabo's department of genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.
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