Bohr-Sommerfeld model of the atom, 1926

Bohr-Sommerfeld model of the atom, 1926

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Credit: EMILIO SEGRE VISUAL ARCHIVES/AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

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Caption: Bohr-Sommerfeld model of the atom. Diagram showing the atomic structure of the chemical element radium (discovered in 1898), based on the model of the atom proposed in 1913 by Danish physicist Niels Bohr and refined by German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld. It is a primitive form of quantum theory that shows the electron orbits as ellipses. The entire model was superseded by advances made from 1925 that led to the valence shell theory of atomic orbitals. This diagram was published in 'The Atom and the Bohr Theory of Its Structure' (1926) by Hendrik Anthony Kramers and Helge Holst, originally published in Danish in 1922.

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