Arum leaf surface. Light micrograph of a section through the lower surface of the epidermis of a cuckoo-pint (Arum maculatum) leaf. Most of the epidermal cell walls are straight and contain cytoplasm (light brown, spotted) without chloroplasts. The nuclei (round, brown) are generally central. The stomata (oval) are each bounded by a pair of guard cells (dark, sausage-shaped). The cytoplasm of each guard cell contains chloroplasts (brown/green) and a vacuole. There are two subsidiary cells adjacent to the guard cells. The guard cells can open or close the stoma and can let gases (water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide) in and out. Magnification: x4 when printed 10 centimetres wide.
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