Flat, closed and open universes, artwork

Flat, closed and open universes, artwork

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Caption: Flat, closed and open universes. Artwork showing the geometrical curvatures of a 'flat' (left), 'closed' (centre) and 'open' (right) universe. The curved grid represents the overall geometry. The universes have planar, spherical and saddle curvatures respectively. The curvature of a universe is determined by the amount and density of matter and energy. In an open universe, the amount of matter is insufficient to prevent the universe expanding forever. In a closed universe, there is enough matter to halt the expansion, followed by a contraction to a Big Crunch. In a flat universe, the amount of matter has a critical value between these two extremes.

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Keywords: 3, 4-d, 4-dimensional, artwork, black background, closed universe, cosmological, cosmology, curvature, curved, cut out, cut outs, cut-out, cut-outs, cutout, cutouts, elliptic, flat, flat universe, four dimensional, galaxies, galaxy, geometrical, geometry, hyperbolic, hypersphere, illustration, open universe, physical, physics, planar, plane, saddle, shape, space, space time, space-time, spacetime, sphere, spherical, three, trio, universe

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