Curved spine, X-ray

Curved spine, X-ray

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Credit: Jean-Denis Laredo, ISM /SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Caption: X-ray of a patient with kyphosis (curvature of the spine) in the upper back. Kyphosis can be caused by incorrect posture, cancer, fractures, osteoporosis, ankylosing spondylitis and osteochondritis. It can also be a birth defect. In this case anterior discarthrosis is apparent, where the intervertebral discs have degenerated and arthritic changes are seen in the vertebrae. Treatment for kyphosis may include physiotherapy, bracing and surgery in extreme cases.

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