Caption: Urea cycle, animation. The urea cycle produces urea from ammonia, a toxic by-product of many biological processes. Urea is able to be safely excreted via the kidneys as urine. In the mitochondrial matrix of liver cells a carbamoyl group is transferred to ornithine (upper left) by the enzyme ornithine transcarbamoylase to form citrulline (top right). In the cell cytosol argininosuccinate synthetase catalyses the condensation of citrulline and aspartate (centre right) to form argininosuccinate (bottom right). This is then cleaved by argininosuccinase to arginine (bottome left) and fumarate (bottom centre). Fumarate is fed into the citric acid cycle and arginine continues in the urea cycle. Arginine is hydrolysed to urea (centre left) and ornithine by arginase and the cycle is able to start over.

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Keywords: ammonia, animated, animation, arginine, argininosuccinate, biochemical, biochemistry, biological, biology, black background, citrulline, cytosolic, excretion, excretory, metabolic pathway, metabolism, mitochondrial, nitrogenous waste, no-one, nobody, ornithine cycle, text, urea, urea cycle

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Urea cycle, animation

K004/3664 Rights Managed

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Duration: 00:00:34.2

Frame size: 1920x1080

Frame rate: 25

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Format: QuickTime, Photo JPEG 100%, progressive scan, square pixels

File size: 107.8M


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Codec: H.264

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