Credit: FRANCIS LEROY & ALEXANDRE TESSIER, BIOCOSMOS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Caption: Cell cycle regulation. Animation showing the role cyclin D plays in the regulation of the cell cycle. The cell cycle consists of four phases. During the S phase DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is replicated in preparation for nuclear division. This is followed by the G2 phase, during which the cell continues to grow. Next is the M phase, when the cell undergoes mitosis (nuclear division) to produce two daughter cells. The daughter cells enter the G1 phase, during which they increase in size and produce the proteins that will be needed in the S phase. There are a number of checkpoints in the cell cycle to ensure that damaged cells are not allowed to proliferate. Progression from the G1 phase to S phase is initiated by the protein cyclin D (yellow dot), which is synthesised in response to growth factors. Cyclin D binds to the enzyme Cdk4 (purple), activating it and beginning a sequence of reactions that lead to the S phase. Once the cell has entered the S phase the cyclin D is degraded.

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Keywords: animated, animation, biochemical, biochemistry, biological, biology, black background, cdk4, cell biology, cell cycle, cell division cycle, cell division protein kinase 4, check points, control, cyclin d1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, division, enzyme, g1 phase progression, g1/s phase transition, genetics, growth, mitosis, protein, regulation, replication, restriction point, start point

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Cell cycle regulation, animation

K004/3700 Rights Managed

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Duration: 00:00:36.24

Frame size: 1280x720

Frame rate: 25

Audio: No

Format: QuickTime, Photo JPEG 100%, progressive scan, square pixels

File size: 89.1M

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Capture format: QuickTime Animation

Codec: H.264

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