Burn scar contracture, 19th-century Japan. Illustration of a patient with scar contracture of his arm and body, from 'A Surgical Casebook', a 19th-century manuscript of hand-painted pictures commissioned by Japanese surgeon Hanaoka Seishu (1760-1835). The scar contracture was caused by a burn injury. Hanaoka pioneered the use of general anaesthesia to remove tumours from cancer patients. His book illustrated the cancers and other conditions that he treated, and the patients that came to him for treatment. The illustrations were by an artist named Tangetsu.
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