Mendelian genetics, Punnett square

Mendelian genetics, Punnett square

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Caption: Mendelian genetics, Punnett square. Diagram showing the genetics of seed colour in peas, as discovered by Gregor Mendel in the 1850s and 1860s. The genes controlling seed colour are Y and y, with Y dominant over y. The combinations YY and Yy produce yellow seeds. The combination yy produces a green seed. The pure parent lines (top) combine gametes (pollen and eggs) to produce a first generation (F1) of yellow seeds (Yy). This self-fertilises to produce the second generation (F2). The colour proportions of the F2 generation of seeds are shown in the form of a Punnett square, with a quarter of the seeds being green (yy, bottom) and three-quarters yellow.

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