Caption: Demonstration of cell signal transduction. Signal travels from exterior to interior of cell via first and second messengers. Signal transduction is the transmission of molecular signals from a cell's exterior to its interi'nals which allow the organism to adjust its internal state to changes in the environment. There are two stages in this process. First, a signalling molecule or ligand binds to the outside of the cell and activates a specific receptor on the cell membrane. The molecule does not actually pass through the membrane. The signals usually take the form of chemicals, such as hormones or nutrients, but they may take another form, such as light, heat or sound. When the receptor is activated, a second messenger continues the signal inside the cell and elicits a physiological response. In either step, the signal can be amplified, meaning that one signalling molecule can cause many responses. (with titles).

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Keywords: cell, cell membrane, first messenger, ligand, response, second messenger, signal transduction, signalling molecule

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Cell signal transduction

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Duration: 00:00:47.28

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