Trepanned skull in the archaeological museum in Amman Citadel, Amman, Jordan. The Amman Citadel is a national historic site at the centre of downtown Amman, Jordan. Known in Arabic as Jabal al-Qal'a, the L-shaped hill is one of the seven jabals that originally made up Amman. Evidence of occupation since the pottery Neolithic period has been found, making it among the world's oldest continuously inhabited places. Trepanning is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases. Cave paintings indicate that people believed the practice would cure epileptic seizures, migraines, mental disorders and the bone that was trepanned was kept as a charm to keep evil spirits away.
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