Ephesus library, Turkey.

Ephesus library, Turkey.

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Credit: DAVID PARKER/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Caption: Restored facade of the Library of Celsus, Ephesus, Selcuk, Turkey. It was built in honour of the Roman Senator Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, (completed in 135 AD) by Celsus' son, Gaius Julius Aquila (consul, 110 AD). The library was built to store 12, 000 scrolls and to serve as a mausoleum for Celsus, who is buried in a crypt beneath the library. The interior of the library and all its books were destroyed by fire in the devastating earthquake that struck the city in 262 AD. Flanking the entrances are four pairs of Composite columns elevated on pedestals. A set of Corinthian columns stands directly above the first set, adding to the height of the building. The pairs of columns on the second level frame the windows as the columns on the first level frame the doors, and also create niches that would have housed statues. The statue of Arete (moral virtue), stands in the niche.

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