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Sine wave and cosine wave. Diagram illustrating the relationship between the rotation of a circle and the corresponding sine waves and cosine waves. These waveforms are extremely common in nature, as they are produced from simple oscillators. The two waves are identical but out of phase with each other. Cosine, sine and tangent (see image C028/9394) are together known as the circular or trigonometric functions. They are of critical importance in mathematics for the analysis and modelling of periodic phenomena.
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