Four sons of Charles Darwin. Four sons born to British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and his wife Emma survived to adulthood. At upper left: Sir George Howard Darwin (1845-1912) was an astronomer who became Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy at the University of Cambridge. At upper right, Francis Darwin (1848-1925) was a botanist who helped with his father's later works and also edited his father's Life and Letters volumes. At lower right, Horace Darwin (1851-1928) was a civil engineer who founded the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company. At lower left, Major Leonard Darwin (1850-1943) was a soldier who went on to be a politician and influential advocate for eugenics. He mentored evolutionary biologist Ronald Fisher. The Darwins' last male child, Charles Waring Darwin, was born in December 1856 with Down syndrome, but died of scarlet fever at 18 months.
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