Heliotype illustration of expressions from 'The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals' by Charles Darwin, 1872. One of the first books to be illustrated with photographs. The publisher John Murray warned that they "would poke a terrible hole in the profits" and so the heliotype was chosen as a photomechanical process to reproduce photographs direct on the page (without mounting actual photographs). Darwin wanted to show the animal origins of human expression and emotion. He saw photography as a tool for capturing brief expression. Here he illustrates the expression of sadness noting " The lips, cheeks, and lower jaw all sink downwards. A party of natives in Tierra del Fuego endeavoured to explain to us that their friend was out of spirits, by pulling down their cheeks with both hands, so as to make their faces as long as possible.
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