Phrenology of famous heads, 1838

Phrenology of famous heads, 1838

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Credit: PAUL D STEWART/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Caption: Phrenology of famous heads. Phrenological divisions of the heads of Buffon, Descartes, Gluck and Raphael. The belief that variations in skull shape can be measured to deduce brain and personality traits is known as phrenology. It was proposed by the German physician Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828), who published his major work on it in 1819. He called it 'Schadellehre' (doctrine of the skull). It is now considered pseudoscience. Artwork from an 1838 volume of 'Dictionnaire pittoresque d'histoire naturelle et des phenomenes de la nature' (Paris, 1833-1839) edited by Felix E. Guerin-Meneville.

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Keywords: 1800s, 19th century, adult, anatomical, anatomy, artwork, black-and-white, brain, buffon, christoph willibald gluck, comte de buffon, descartes, dictionnaire pittoresque, doctrine, european, felix guerin-meneville, franz gall, franz joseph gall, georges-louis leclerc, german, gluck, head, historical, history, human, illustration, medical, medicine, monochrome, no-one, nobody, people, person, phrenological, phrenology, pseudoscience, raffaello sanzio da urbino, raphael, rene descartes, skull, traits

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