Herbert Spencer, British philosopher

Herbert Spencer, British philosopher

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Credit: PAUL D STEWART/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Caption: Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), British philosopher. Spencer began his career in 1848 as a journalist for 'The Economist' magazine. In 1855 he published his best known work 'Principals of Psychology' in which he applied Darwin's ideas on evolution to man, which Darwin had originally avoided. He also coined the phrase 'survival of the fittest' and applied it to sociology and economics. Unfortunately, 'the fittest' was widely taken to mean prosperous white Victorian men. Carte de visite photograph from the 1860s.

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