Caption: Microscope footage of spores being released from the sporangia of a male fern (Dryopteris filix-mas). The sporangia were taken from a sorus on the underside of a fern frond, and embedded in anhydrous glycerol. Due to the anhydrous conditions, the mature sporangia start to open and begin to release the spores, ending with a rapid movement to catapult the spores away. The movement is initiated by a rim of thick-walled cells, the annulus (light orange). Dehydration causes these water-filled cells to dry out, contracting and straightening, ejecting the spores. In dry air this is a very rapid process that can fling the spores away from the plant. In this preparation, the movement is softened and slowed by the surrounding glycerol, to show the sequence under controlled conditions. Filmed with differential interference contrast illumination. Captured field width: 0.5mm. This footage has been sped up 400% (x4).

Release details: Model release not required. Property release not required.

Keywords: 4k, anatomical, anatomy, annulus, biological, biology, botanical, botany, close-up, dehiscence, detail, dic, differential interference contrast, dryopteris filix-mas, ejecting, fern, flora, frond, light micrograph, lm, male fern, microscope, microscopic, microscopy, nature, physiological, physiology, release, releasing, reproduction, slowed down, sori, sorus, sporangia, sporangium, spore, spores, time-lapse, timelapse, uhd

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Fern sporangia releasing spores

K006/5667 Rights Managed

Downloadable master

Duration: 00:00:20.13

Frame size: 3840x2160

Frame rate: 24

Audio: No

Format: QuickTime, Photo JPEG 100%, progressive scan, square pixels

File size: 763.3M


Capture format: Blackmagic Micro Studio Camera 4K

Codec: Apple ProRes 422 (HQ)

Please contact Science Photo Library if you require the original, or other formats.


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