Artichoke Galls on Pedunculate Oak

Artichoke Galls on Pedunculate Oak

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Caption: Artichoke Galls on Pedunculate Oak (Quercus rubus). Flower buds infected by the gall wasp Andricus fecundator. In spring the female gall wasp lays single eggs in buds of the Pedunculate oak. The presence of the larvae, once hatched, triggers the buds to swell and develop into what are known as artichoke galls (centre and centre left). Each larva is within a central hard gall that comes out of the swollen bud and drops to the ground in late summer. The gall wasps that emerge in the spring are all female. The small saucer-shaped galls under the leaf in the background (top left) are silk button spangle galls caused by another gall wasp, Neuroterus numismalis.

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