Caption: Soap bubble freezing in real time, outdoors with an air temperature of minus 15 degrees Celsius (5 F). The thin crystals of dendritic ice spread over the surface of the bubble as the water freezes. These patterns are known as fern frost, due to the resemblance of the crystal pattern to the fronds of a fern. Filmed in St Paul, Minnesota, in winter.

Release details: Model release not required. Property release not required.

Keywords: bubble, cold, convection, cooling, crystal, demonstrating, demonstration, dendrite, education, educational, fern frost, freeze, freezing, frost flower, fusion, growth, heat, ice, ice flower, icy, kinetics, macro, nucleation, optics, phase, phases, physical, physics, point, refraction, scattering, soap, solidify, state, states, thermodynamics, transformation, transition, transparent, water, winter

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Ice crystals forming on a soap bubble

K006/7639 Rights Managed

Downloadable master

Duration: 00:00:08.58

Frame size: 1920x1080

Frame rate: 59.94

Audio: No

Format: QuickTime, Photo JPEG 100%, progressive scan, square pixels

File size: 595.3M


Capture format: Nikon D800E

Codec: Apple ProRes 422

Please contact Science Photo Library if you require the original, or other formats.


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