Credit: DENNIS KUNKEL MICROSCOPY/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Caption: Animated coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the surface recording grooves of a 78-rpm phonograph record. Early disc phonograph records (also called gramophone records) were made of various materials including hard rubber. From 1897 onwards, earlier materials were largely replaced by a rather brittle formula of 25% shellac, a filler of a cotton compound (similar to manila paper), powdered slate, and a small amount of a wax lubricant. Vinyl (polyvinyl chloride) was used as a 78 rpm record material starting in 1940. These records had much less noise and less ability to break. A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove usually starting near the periphery and ending near the centre of the disc.

Release details: Model release not required. Property release not required.

Keywords: 78, 78rpm, 97110d, analog, animated, animation, chloride, colored, coloured, digital, disc, electron, false-colored, false-coloured, flat, gramophone, groove, grooves, hard, ken burns effect, made, man, manmade, media, medium, micrograph, phonograph, polyvinyl, pvc, record, recording, recordings, records, rostrum, rpm, rubber, scanning, sem, sound, spiral, storage, surface, vinyl

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Grooves in phonograph record, SEM

K006/8360 Rights Managed

Downloadable master

Duration: 00:00:15

Frame size: 1920x1080

Frame rate: 25

Audio: No

Format: QuickTime, Photo JPEG 100%, progressive scan, square pixels

File size: 588.9M

Original

Capture format: Digital Rostrum

Frame size: 5500x7032

Codec: JPEG

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