Neanderthal stone tool. Tools such as this were made from materials such as flint. This specimen is from the Pinilla del Valle site, in the Lozoya Valley, near Madrid, Spain. Several Neanderthal fossils have been found here. Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) inhabited Europe and western Asia between 230,000 and 29,000 years ago. They did not use complex tools but had mastery of fire and built shelters. It is thought that they had language and a complex social structure, living in small family groups and hunting for food. Excavations at this site have been taking place since around 2002.
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