Kidney stone, SEM

Kidney stone, SEM

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Credit: DENNIS KUNKEL MICROSCOPY/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Caption: Kidney stone, scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Kidney stones are primarily formed by crystallization of the mineral salt calcium oxalate from the urine. They are irregular shaped stones called calculi (calculus) and are composed of random oriented columnar monoclinic crystals of calcium oxalate monohydrate with peripheral deposits of fine octahedral crystals of calcium oxalate dehydrate. Patches of microcrystalline hydroxyl apatite fill internodal regions. Protein matrices can also be associated with the microcrystalline arrays. The hard stones can cause severe pain as they pass down the ureter (urinary tract). Kidney stones may need to be removed surgically using ultrasound. Magnification: x16 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres.

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Keywords: 24006a, abnormal, black and white, calcium oxalate dehydrate, calcium oxalate monohydrate, calculi, calculus, columnar monoclinic crystals, crystal, crystalline, crystals, human disease, human disorder, kidney, kidney function, kidney stone, kidney stones, lithiasis, medical, medicine, mineral, monochrome, octahedral crystal, octahedral crystals, renal system, scanning electron micrograph, sem, stone, stones, unhealthy, ureter, uric acid, urinary track, urinary tract, urine

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