Candle flame, schlieren image

Candle flame, schlieren image

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Credit: DR GARY SETTLES/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Caption: Candle flame, schlieren image. Schlieren photography is an imaging technique that is used to show changes in the density of fluids and gases such as air, caused here by the heat of the candle flame. The rising convective plume of hot air and combustion products from the burning candle forms a laminar cylindrical flow for several centimetres. It then undergoes characteristic wave-like instabilities for another few centimetres before erupting into turbulence. This phenomenon is called laminar-to-turbulent-flow transition. It is one of most difficult phenomena in fluid mechanics to predict accurately.

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Keywords: 1, blue, burning, candle, combustion, convection, density, flame, flow visualization, fluid dynamics, heat, heat transfer, imaging technique, laminar, laminar flow, one, optical, optics, physical, physics, plume, refraction, refractive index, schlieren image, schlieren photography, single, thermal plume, turbulent, turbulent flow

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