Effects of grazing by red deer

Effects of grazing by red deer

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Caption: Effects of grazing by red deer. On the left is an area on which red deer (Cervus elaphus) are allowed to graze. Here the plants are small and low-lying. On the right is an area protected from the deer by a fence, where the plants are much larger. Growing in the protected area are common heather (Calluna vulgaris, purple) and seedlings of Downy birch (Betula pubescens, yellow-green leaves) trees, and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia, brown leaves) trees. Photographed in Glen Dee, Cairngorms National Park, Scotland, in August.

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