Baruch Spinoza, caricature

Baruch Spinoza, caricature

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Credit: GARY BROWN/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Caption: Baruch Spinoza. Caricature of the Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677). Spinoza is considered to be one of Western philosophy's most important philosophers. He believed that nothing exists independently except for God, and that everything that exists does so as a part of God. He considered the Universe and Nature to be God, rather than the personalised Judeo-Christian deity. He was expelled from Holland's Jewish community for these heretical views. His seminal work, Ethics (1677), outlined these views and has become one of the most important early modern philosophical works.

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