GDNF complexed with GDF15. Computer illustration showing a glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) molecule (red) bound to a growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) molecule (fuchsia) in a cell membrane (white) of the brainstem. GDF15 regulates food intake, energy expenditure and body weight in response to metabolic and toxin-induced stresses. GDF15 levels increase in response to tissue stress and injury, and elevated levels are associated with body weight loss in numerous chronic human diseases.
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