Young pine tree stem, light micrograph

Young pine tree stem, light micrograph

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Caption: Young pine tree stem. Light micrograph of a transverse section through a two and a half-year-old stem of a pine tree (Pinus sp.). The cells of the outer epidermis (bright red) are thick-walled with a thick covering of cuticle beginning to break up. Beneath the epidermis is a cork cambium (phellogen) which has produced 2-3 layers of cork (orange-brown), to resist forest fires. The vascular cylinder has a thick layer of phloem (pale blue and deep blue) with a layer of cambium (light grey-blue) formed between the phloem and xylem (red). Spring wood consists of large thin-walled cells whilst the autumn wood (last formed) has small thick-walled cells. Since there are three layers of spring wood and two layers of autumn wood the stem is two and a half years old. Magnification: x14 when printed 10 centimetres wide.

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Keywords: autumn wood, biological, biology, botanical, botany, cambium, cell, cell biology, cells, conifer, coniferous, cork, cut out, cut outs, cut-out, cut-outs, cuticle, cutout, cutouts, cytology, epidermis, flora, gymnosperm, gymnosperms, light micrograph, light microscope, lm, nature, phellogen, phloem, pine, pinus sp., plant, plant structure, resin canals, section, sectioned, spring wood, stem, support, supportive, tracheid, tracheids, tree, two and a half year old, two and a half-year-old, vascular bundle, white background, xylem, young

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