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Spectroscope, 1872. Instrument of the type developed by Robert Bunsen (1811-1899) and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824-1887) during the 1850s. Their work provided a precise tool to make use of Joseph von Fraunhofer's (1787-1826) observations of dark lines in the solar spectrum (1814). The technique of chemical analysis through spectroscopy has become essential in both terrestrial and astronomical studies. From Spectrum Analysis by H Schellen.
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