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CARLOS CLARIVAN / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY CARLOS CLARIVAN / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Diagram of the nuclear composition, electron configuration, and valence orbitals of an atom of gallium-70 (atomic number: 31), an isotope of this element. The nucleus consists of 31 protons (blue) and 39 neutrons (red). The stability of an element's outer (valence) electrons determines its chemical and physical properties. Gallium is a post-transition metal in group 13, period 4, and the p-block of the periodic table. It is one of the elements used in semiconductors, forming the basis of computer technology. It has a melting point of 30 degrees Celsius.
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