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Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), British hospital reformer and pioneer of nursing. Nightingale came from a wealthy family, but went against the wishes of them and society by studying to be a nurse following 'divine calling'. She is most famous for her work in the Crimean War in 1854. At the Army hospital near Scutari she established the link between good sanitation and patient outcome in an era when overcrowding, disease and malnourishment killed ten times more troops than the enemy. On her return she wrote a report for a Royal Commission, using her own polar area charts (a type of pie chart) to present her statistical analysis. This report led to widespread reform and the establishment of the Army Medical Service. Nightingale continued championing the training of nurses for the rest of her life, including the founding of the Nursing School at St.Thomas' Hospital, London.
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