ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Aristotelian cosmology. Earth (centre). This is a classical geocentric Aristotelian system, with Earth, Water, Air and Fire, followed by the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the firmament of stars, the crystalline heaven, the primum mobile, and finally the empyrean heaven. This diagram is from 'De ratione' (1560) by the Italian mathematics lecturer Filippo Fantoni (circa 1530-1591). Aristotle to Ptolemy to Johannes de Sacrobosco.
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