LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, GEOGRAPHY AND MAP DIVISION / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, GEOGRAPHY AND MAP DIVISION / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Published in Amsterdam in 1660, this map by the Dutch cartographer Frederick de Witt (1630-1706) shows the expanding exploration of the known world. The map divides the Earth into a western and eastern hemisphere. In the upper corners are the constellations of the northern and southern celestial poles, with the geographical poles in the lower corners. Above and below the hemispheres are the Aristotlean elements of Air, Fire, Earth and Water. At upper centre is the Sun, with the Earth orbiting on an ecliptic ring of zodaical symbols. At lower centre, Ptolemy's geocentric cosmology (left) is contrasted with the heliocentric Copernican cosmology (right).
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