GRAEME EWENS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY GRAEME EWENS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Coastal erosion. Houses located at the very edge of a cliff that has been eroded by the sea; one building (at centre left) has already fallen onto the beach. The wooden bulwarks (lower frame) have been unsuccessful in protecting this stretch of coastline. The cliff is comprised of sand, pebbles and marl (grey clay). This mixture is easily eroded. Sea defences, such as the bulwarks, only provide a local solution to the problem of erosion. This is because sediment taken from one stretch of coastline is often deposited on another part, giving protection there. Photographed at Happisburg in Norfolk, UK. The bulwarks were built in 1959.
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