MARK GARLICK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY MARK GARLICK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Volcano. Cutaway artwork of the internal structure of a volcano. Molten rock (magma, orange) lies beneath the Earth's rocky surface (crust, brown). This magma can accumulate in a magma chamber near the surface of the Earth and erupt as lava through a central vent, forming the classic cinder cone shape of this volcano. The large red arrows demonstrate convection currents in the magma that, together with other tectonic forces, can force overlying rocks apart (small red arrows) to form the cracks where a volcano forms. This spreading process occurs at divergent boundaries between the tectonic plates that make up the crust of the Earth.
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