JEREMY BISHOP / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY JEREMY BISHOP / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Volcanic sulphur mining. Baskets full of sulphur (yellow) before transportation off the slopes of Ijen volcano, Java, Indonesia. Sulphurous gases rise from Kawah Ijen, the crater lake that is seen in the background. Sulphur is an element that is twice as dense as water. The heavy load is carried in these pannier baskets, designed to be laid over a man's shoulders. The sulphur is a component of the magma (molten rock) that issues from volcanoes as lava. The sulphur is mined for industrial uses, such as the production of fertilisers and dyes, though it is primarily used in the manufacture of sulphuric acid for further industrial uses. Photographed in 1999.
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