GARY HINCKS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY GARY HINCKS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Volcanic hazard distances. Artwork showing the distances from a volcano that different hazards can reach. Lava flows (red) can reach up to 50 kilometres. Mud flows (lahars, dark orange) are formed of a mixture of water, ash and rock, and can reach up to 150 kilometres. Pyroclastic flows (purple) are formed of a mixture of ash and hot volcanic gases, and can be formed by the partial collapse of an eruption column. They can reach up to 200 kilometres. Both pyroclastic flows and lahars can move at hundreds of kilometres an hour. The largest volcanic eruptions can propel ash into the stratosphere (11 kilometres high). Here, it is more buoyant, and winds carry it thousands of kilometres to cause ash falls (light orange).
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