BERNHARD EDMAIER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY BERNHARD EDMAIER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Lava tube at coast. View of a lava tube emptying lava into the sea on the coast of Big Island, Hawaii. A lava tube forms when the surface of a large volume of lava cools and solidifies in the air. The inner lava remains molten, and flows through the rock tube. This tube originated from the Kilauea volcano, which is one of the world's most active. Lava reaches volcanoes from the Earth's interior through faults in the crust, and is forced through them by the high pressure within the Earth. The black rock of this coastline is made from old lava flows. Lava flows like this mean that the Hawaiian islands are still increasing in size.
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