GARY HINCKS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY GARY HINCKS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Hydrothermal ore formation. Artwork showing the hydrothermal process of mineral ore formation. Mineral rich liquids, such as seawater and brine (water from deposited sediments), mix with rainwater and seep into the ground (arrows). Here, they are heated by hot magma (orange) from the volcano, which causes particular minerals to be deposited in certain regions of the earth's crust. At the edge of the magma chamber (brown, bottom), copper and molybdenum are deposited. Gold and silver are deposited near the surface (yellow, upper left), along with quartz and galena (blue, upper right). In the pegmatite dykes at centre right (also blue), topaz and beryl are deposited.
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