JAVIER TRUEBA / MSF / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY JAVIER TRUEBA / MSF / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Endocranial casts of Australopithecus. An endocranial cast is a cast of the inside of the skull, which can form naturally when sediments fill an empty skull. The sediments are fossilised but the skull disintegrates to leave a replica of the brain and many of the details of its outer surface. These are casts of Australopithecus endocrania. The genus Australopithecus includes several bipedal human-like primate (hominid) species that lived in Africa between 4.4 and 1.7 million years ago. Endocranial casts show the volume of Australopithecus's brain to range from 435-650 cubic cm, compared with about 1400 cubic cm for a modern human brain.
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