JOHN READER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY JOHN READER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Neanderthal fossil remains. Assortment of fossil bones of Homo neanderthalensis, discovered at La Ferrassie in France. An adult skull (at top) and a skeleton of a 2-3 year old infant (lower centre) are represented. Formerly seen as a degenerate version of modern humans, Neanderthal man is now considered a separate species and believed not to be a direct ancestor. The skull has brow ridges, a low forehead, large teeth, with average brain size over 1400 ml. The infant's bones appear stocky. Homo neanderthalensis were short, thick-set people with a body cold-adapted like eskimos. They lived as hunter gatherers, ranging across Europe from about 150,000 to 30,000 years ago.
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