PASCAL GOETGHELUCK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY PASCAL GOETGHELUCK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Human ancestor skulls. Five skulls belonging to some ancestors and relatives of modern humans. The three skulls at left are, from bottom left to top centre, Australopithecus africanus (3-1.8 million years ago), Homo habilis (or H. rudolfensis, 2.1- 1.6 mya) and Homo erectus (or H. ergaster, 1.8-0.3 mya, although the ergaster classification is generally recognised to mean the earlier part of this period). The black skull at upper right is from a modern human (Homo sapiens sapiens) from the Qafzeh site in Israel, which is around 92,000 years old. The pale skull at lower right is from a French Cro-Magnon human, a later form of the same species, from around 22,000 years ago.
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