PASCAL GOETGHELUCK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY PASCAL GOETGHELUCK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Neanderthal bones. Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) were hominids (human relatives) that inhabited Europe between 150,000 and 30,000 years ago. It was initially thought that the Neanderthals were a primitive type of early human, but more recent research has suggested that they were a separate species that lived in parallel with other hominids. Their stature and features imply that they were adapted for an existence in a cold environment, as would have been the prevailing climate during the Ice Ages. Their brains were large, even compared to modern humans. This specimen was found in La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France, and is around 45,000 years old.
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