SIMON FRASER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SIMON FRASER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Acid rain: the remains of spruce trees devastated by acid rain in the Karkonoski National Park, south-west Poland. Located on the border with Czechoslovakia, the trees are subject to acid precipitation wind-blown from that country. In 1989 a highly-acidic pH of 1.7 was recorded on one occasion; pH 7 indicates a neutral value. Trees in the 1000-1250 metres altitude range appear especially vulnerable. Other factors which compound the damage include insects, drought and high winds. Of the 3,800 hectares that the Karkonoski Park occupies, 150 hectares have been severely affected.
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